India’s poor are forced to live in conditions considered unimaginably inhuman in the western world Image Source

For decades the world has been battling poverty with a stern resolve. It was only the result of this effort that around 1.2 billion people have risen out of extreme poverty since 1990. Sadly the COVID-19 pandemic seems to reverse the successes, the world has made in terms of poverty eradication.

Bar chart showing how the pandemic has added to the vows of India’s poor

In this essay on poverty in English for students and UPSC aspirants, we will talk about a number of topics related to poverty, such as – the definition of poverty; poverty in India; an essay on poverty in the Indian context, and their feasible solutions as well.

Short Essay on Poverty

This short essay on poverty is especially suitable for junior classes, from standard 1 to 6. Simple short sentences make it easy for the kids to understand poverty and its impact on the society.

Essay on Poverty in India for Class 6


Poverty is a state in which a person doesn’t has enough money to meet even basic everyday requirements, such as food, clothing, and shelter. Unfortunately there are many persons/families around the world who find it difficult to arrange even one square meal a day.

Causes of Poverty

The main causes of poverty in India are discussed below –

1) Unemployment

India should really be worrying about its increasing level of unemployment post-pandemic Image Source

This is one of the main causes of poverty in India. Not enough employment opportunities are generated, leaving millions fall in the marginalized poor category. India presently has around 12 million unemployed persons.

2) Backward Agriculture

Over 70% of India’s population resides in villages and depends directly or indirectly on agriculture. With the lowest production per hectare and per capita income, India’s farmers constitute a significant number of poor of India.

Farmer protests in India are common. In the image – Farmers protest against onion, at Nashik in Maharashtra Image Source

3) Inefficient Public distribution System

The present public distribution system in India has its own shortfalls. Due to inefficient mismanagement, the grains, food, don’t reach the poorest of its citizens.

Decades old public distribution system of India needs a complete revamp Image Source

4) Inadequate Facilities

If the government fails to provide its citizens, basic needs such as clean water, modest shelter, a meal at least once a day, it only adds to the number of poor. At least minimum basic needs for a modest living must be guaranteed to the poorest.

Inadequate facilities and a permanently lingering water crisis add to the woes of India’s poor Image Source

Solutions of Poverty in India

Top measures for reducing poverty in India are explained below –

1) Revamping Economy

There is no doubt that economic growth generates employment. Women working in a garment factory at an unknown location in India Image Source

Economic growth is a time tested tool against poverty. There is no rocket science here. Economic growth means employment generation and more means of livelihood, leading to better living condition and hence poverty eradication.

2) Strengthening Agriculture Sector

The government should implement the similar agriculture reforms as in the state of Punjab, hoe to the richest farmers of India Image Source

Agriculture and its allied sectors are the largest employers in India. If India has to ever elevate above poverty, it has to strengthen its agro and allied sectors. Increasing productive yield per hectare by employing advance techniques has already been proven to elevate farmers out of poverty.

3) Investing in Education and Skill Development

Skill development plays a major role in poverty eradication Image Source

Education is directly proportional to the poverty of a nation. If a nation has more illiterates, it will definitely have more poor population. Government must invest in education, and ensure equally opportunities for all, in it. Even the poorest of the poor must be able to get uninterrupted education. Skill development is also an important tool to fight poverty, as it makes a person employable, even if he/she is illiterate.


You must have heard the phrase “Easier said than done”. This is very true in the context of poverty eradication as well. We recognize the problems and their solutions as well. The government too knows it all. But then, taking strict corrective measures and ensuring their implementation at all levels, is another colossal task, but not impossible at all. We know that many nations were able to do that and so we would be too, if we just have the will to do it, in the first place.  

Essay on COVID-19

By Abha