Essay On Artificial Intelligence


Today, we live in an era when we largely depend on computers and machines for our daily jobs. It is impossible to imagine a life without computers. They are everywhere – schools, colleges, offices, hospitals, shops, railway stations, petrol pumps, etc. Since their invention computers have been regularly improved to make them more accurate and efficient. They can now perform various complex tasks ranging from complex calculations to launching satellites. Indeed, they have made our lives easy. The concept of Artificial Intelligence is a major step in the development of computers, to a stage where they imitate human intelligence and senses. “Artificial Intelligence’ allows computers to perceive situations, just like real humans would do. They can visually analyze a situation and make relevant decisions; recognize speech and differentiate between them, etc. Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a phenomenal change in the world of computers.   

Major Branches Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The major branches of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are given below –

1. Experts Systems

2. Robotics

3. Machine Learning

4. Neural Network

5. Fuzzy Logic

6. Natural Language Processing

Let’s get into a little detail –

1. Experts Systems

An Expert System was first developed in 1970. It was the first major step forward in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The first AI Expert System was developed by Edward Feigenbaum and Joshua Lederberg of California Stanford University, to analyze chemical compounds.

The Expert system in AI is a computer program that implements the methods of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to solve complex problems in any specialized domain like medical diagnosis, petroleum engineering, investment, etc.

The Expert System has a knowledge base that works similarly to a human brain. As any expert human would have used his brain, similarly the Expert System extracts knowledge from its knowledge base to solve complex problems.

It is obvious that more information stored in the knowledge base means better performance of the expert system.

It is very important to realize that it’s not a replacement for a real human expert but only a tool to assist him. An Expert System performs out of the info stored in its knowledge base and lacks the thinking ability of a human.  

Some of the most famous examples of Expert Systems in AI are –

MYCIN – This is the first expert system developed and was based on backward chaining. It was used for identifying various bacteria causing severe infections.

DENDRAL – This AI-based expert system was mainly used for chemical analysis.

  2. Robotics

This is the most interesting branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI). It deals with the development and design of robots. It is a mix of science and advance engineering techniques that make it possible for a machine to have the skills of a human.

Robots are used to perform difficult and tedious tasks. Humans get tired affecting their accuracy, but robots just don’t get tired. After all, they are machines and capable of performing the same tasks for hours with accuracy.

The future of robotics is that it would allow robots to perform highly complex and risky tasks such as handling radioactive substances and defusing bombs.

3. Machine Learning

Machine Learning is one of the most popular branches of Artificial Intelligence. It uses data interpretation and analysis to tackle real-life problems.

The algorithm is designed such that the machine can predict outcomes based on past occurrences.

4. Neural Network

The Neural Network branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI) is also called “Deep Learning “as it uses artificial brain neurons to solve complex problems.

It allows the machine to implement statistical and mathematical techniques to solve real problems just like the human brain.

This astonishing branch of AI is behind face recognition devices and virtual assistants like ‘Alexa’.   

5. Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy Logic in simple terms is a computing approach based on the degree of truth rather than true or false. It offers reasoning ability up to a certain level when faced with uncertainties.

Any computer system runs on a binary system, that is 1 (True) and 0 (False). On the contrary, many real-life situations can be partially true and partially false. This is when Fuzzy Logic comes into the picture.

6. Natural Language Processing

Natural Language Processing in AI is a branch that helps the computer to understand and manipulate human language.

As computers understand only binary language so it’s difficult to interact with them. This has led to the development of Natural Language Processing. It allows machines to receive human sounds and convert them into easy-to-read and understand text format.


Artificial Intelligence is definitely an interesting field that aims to make machines perform complex tasks requiring the intelligence and dexterity of a human. In the future, AI has tremendous potential for development and job creation.

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