The Republic Day of India is celebrated every year on 26th January. It is the most significant national festival of India, celebrated throughout the country. This Republic Day Essay In English for Students is neatly divided into three parts – Introduction, body, and conclusion. The body contains write-ups with headings like – why is Republic Day celebrated in India; the history of Republic Day of India; how is Republic Day celebrated in schools and offices; Significance/importance of the Republic Day of India, etc.


The term “Republic” refers to a political system in which the real power lies with the citizens. The citizens have the power to elect their representatives as well as overthrow them on accounts of corruption or nonperformance.

These powers to Indian citizens and also their fundamental rights are provided by the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, but came into effect from 26 January 1950, marking India’s transition from a colonial rule-governed country towards a democratic republic.

26 January is therefore celebrated as Republic Day in India to commemorate the inception of the Constitution, also India’s transition towards becoming a democratic republic (purna swaraj).

Why is Republic Day Celebrated – History of Republic Day

Before 1930, Indian political parties were embracing the idea of political independence from the United Kingdom. Though their demands were limited to providing a dominion status as enjoyed by Australia and Canada under the British Empire.

Many political parties including the Muslim league were opposed to complete independence and were in favor of dominion status. But Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi had been demanding Purna Swaraj, since early 1919.

Congress leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal were openly demanding complete independence from British Rule. After the Jallianwalan Bagh massacre of 1919, there was huge public outrage against British rule, and looking at the public sentiments Mahatma Gandhi and congress committed themselves to Purna Swaraj.

Mahatma Gandhi led a nationwide Non-co-operation movement between 1920-1922 against the 1919 Rowlett Act in which civil liberties of Indian citizens were hugely curtailed. Jawaharlal Nehru hoisted the Indian national flag on 31 December 1929 on the banks of the river Ravi in Lahore and asked the people to observe 26 January as Independence Day.

Finally, after a long-fought battle for independence through the Indian independence movement (known for the Non-co-operation movement and civil disobedience movement) under Mahatma Gandhi, India achieved independence on 15 August 1947.

But even after independence India didn’t have a Constitution of her own and was functioning as a constitutional monarchy under George VI as the head of state and Earl Mountbatten as Governor-General, to be governed by laws based on modified Government of India Act 1935.

A constitution drafting committee was formed under the chairmanship of B.R. Ambedkar, on 29 august 1947. Chairman of the drafting committee B.R. Ambedkar finally presented the draft constitution to the President of the committee, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 26 November 1949, which came into effect from 26 January 1950.

The date 26 January was chosen for Republic Day because it was on this day in 1930 that the declaration of India independence (Purna Swaraj) was proclaimed by the Indian National Congress as opposed to dominion status granted by the British Empire.

How is Republic Day Celebrated?

An essay on Republic Day in India is incomplete without providing detail of its grand celebration in all over India, especially in national capital Delhi. A description of celebration to let you know how important is Republic day for the people of India, is given below-

In National Capital Delhi

The preparation for Republic Day celebrations in Delhi starts days before the actual event. Students from various schools across the country gather to rehearse their performance in the final parade.

Also, the personals from security forces or defense take part in the rehearsal and take adequate security measures for the safety of the citizens as well as various dignitaries present.

Also various cultural and social groups from almost all the Indian states take part in the parade displaying India’s rich cultural and social heritage.

The parade on 26th January commences from Rashtrapati Bhawan and goes to Rajpath via India Gate. The celebration lasts for three days showing India’s defense capabilities and social, cultural diversity to the world.

It is also a tradition to invite another Head of the State from some other country as a Chief Guest. For the first time on Republic Day in 2018, Head of the states of ten ASEAN (Association of southeast Asian Nations) countries were invited as chief guests. 

The parade starts with Prime Minister along with three military heads paying floral tribute to the fallen soldiers at Amar Jawan Jyoti, India gate. Afterward, he reaches the Dias at Rajpath, to receive the President along with the Chief Guest escorted by the President’s National guards.

The President of India then unfurls the National flag followed by the singing of National Anthem-“Jana Gann Mann” by all in standing position, immediately followed by 21 guns salute as a symbol of military honor to the President (who is also the Constitutional Chief of the armed forces) and foreign dignitaries.

The President then starts by giving gallantry awards to the soldiers for showing exceptional courage and bravery during the time of war. The Prime Minister announces various schemes for the welfare of citizens and the progress made in previous ones.

The speech is followed by a long parade by Indian forces showing India’s defense capability. At last comes the parade of various groups displaying India’s social, cultural diversity and harmony among people. The Republic Day celebration officially ends with the ‘Beating the Retreat ‘ceremony on the evening of 29th January.

In Schools/Colleges

Republic day is celebrated as a grand festival by children. Despite being a National the presence of all the children and staff is mandatory for the Flag hoisting ceremony.

Children also organize various programs to commemorate freedom fighters and to understand the importance of having Swaraj.

Sweets are distributed among children and they are taught about the freedom struggle and the importance of the Constitution in order to remain democratic.

In Offices

The Government of India has mandated the presence of all the employees on the occasion of flag hoisting on Republic Day.

After the flag hoisting ceremony, the national anthem is sung, followed by an exchange of pleasantries.

The head of the office hoists the flag and a small program is organized, including the distribution of sweets among the employees.

They thank the framers of our Constitution, for providing us a fair and unbiased Constitution.

More stress is given on the need of having a Constitution of our own and its essentiality for democracy.

Significance of the Republic Day of India

Republic day marks India’s transition from a colonial ruled state to a democratic republic having self-rule or Swaraj.

There were many perils associated with the colonial rule- no civil liberties, no equality, people were not allowed equal opportunities as their British counterparts, they were not allowed to trade freely, and were highly suppressed by the administration in all their endeavors.

All this because India was governed by a Foreign Empire, which was not interested in the welfare of Indians but only in filling its coffers by imposing high taxes and through an unjust revenue system.

The Constitution of India marks the beginning of a new dawn for the Indian masses.

For the first time, they were able to choose their own government, enjoy civil liberties and fundamental rights as in all democratic countries.

Moreover, they have been provided supreme power and can overthrow any elected representative on grounds of corruption or underperformance.

The Constitution put the citizens of India at the center, with all the government machinery formed with the basic aim of protecting their rights and promoting their welfare.

Republic Day reminds the people of India that how important is it to have their own Constitution in order to prosper and grow and also reminds us of the struggle and sacrifices of our freedom fighters for achieving Swaraj.

Republic Day celebrates the institution of the supreme law of the land-” Constitution of India”.


Republic Day of India celebrated on January 26, marks the institution of the Constitution of India which came into effect on 26th January 1950, replacing the Government of India Act 1935.

It also marked the beginning of a new dawn for the people of India towards freedom and self-governance. But any democratic nations should be governed by a set of rules, acceptable to all.

The Constitution of India provided to us contains in detail the responsibilities and rights of the citizens of India as well as the legislative, executive, and judiciary.

On Republic Day we commemorate the framers of our constitution for providing us a fair and unbiased constitution, making us the world’s largest democracy.

Republic Day Important FAQs

Question 1: How many years of Republic Days?

Answer: India will celebrate 75th Republic Day on 26th January 2024.

Question 2 : What is the theme of Republic Day 2024?

Answer: The theme of Republic Day 2024 is “India-Mother of Democracy” and “Viksit Bharat”.

Question 3: Who is the chief guest of Republic Day 2024?

Answer: H.E. Mr. Emmanuel Macron, President of France, will be visiting India as the Chief Guest for the 75th Republic Day celebrations.

Question 4: Why is Republic Day celebrated on 26th January?

Answer: To mark the commemoration of the Constitution of India which was adopted on 26th January 1950.

Question 5: Who invented Republic Day?

Answer: First President of India Dr. Rajendra Prasad heralded the historic birth of Indian Republic Day.

By Abha